How Trump Voters View the President Now
Editor’s note: This article is a follow-up to this first installment the author published, on Oct. 14, 2016, in which she interviewed a group of Trump supporters. She has annotated her interviews by adding her own comments below the transcript of the interviewees’ answers. Asterisks (*) mark the interview areas on which the writer comments near the bottom of the article.
Two years have flown since November 2016, and it’s time to revisit Trump’s middle-class, college-educated Republican voters.
Two of the original seven I interviewed—Larry, the Pennsylvania optometrist, and Janet, the Philadelphia paralegal, did not want to be re-interviewed, although Janet emailed, “I do not regret my vote.” In their place, I added Sheriff Ken Matlack, from Irrigon, a rural Oregon county.
The others are Judy, 79, from Princeton, N.J., a retired social worker; Cindy, 66, on Cape Cod, Mass., a retired public school teacher and motel owner; Ron, 73, in Abilene, Kan., an evangelical missionary who lived in Mozambique and South Africa for 10 years; Dave, 70, in Worcester, Mass., a retired community savings bank official; and Dane, 58, in Fort Collins, Colo., a semiretired realtor.
All are white and all but one are committed to President Trump. Here’s what they think about his first two years in general, his choice of Brett Kavanaugh and the Judiciary Committee hearings, Trump’s immigration policies, his attempts to scrap Obamacare, his cutbacks to environmental regulations, and his approach to assault rifles, today’s economy, the 2017 tax law, nuclear weapons and the deficit.
All gave me over an hour to hear their thoughts and responded to follow-up calls.
On Trump’s First Two Years
Judy. Trump’s done a wonderful job. He doesn’t hide behind a desk but instead makes the public feel it’s being listened to. He was bold enough to tell the United Nations that America is doing more than its fair share and others [other countries] are starting to pay more.
I still think he can be trusted. But the press does everything it can to make him look bad and focuses on the things that haven’t even been proven. I don’t care about the scandals. And I don’t think most people care about his relationships, which aren’t illegal and happened before he became president.
The whole FBI has been working against him. Peter Strzok and Lisa Page were working in the Department of Justice to set up a narrative to demonize Trump, to make it look like he was colluding with the Russians. Someone from Fox News wrote “The Russian Hoax,” showing how people wanted to make sure Hillary got elected. [The full title is “The Russian Hoax: The Illicit Scheme to Clear Hillary Clinton and Frame Donald Trump,” by Gregg Jarrett].
Cindy. He’s made mistakes, but his administration is more scrutinized than any others have been. Anything bad comes to the forefront, while in the past, things happened behind closed doors.
About his appointments, it’s horrible that so many politicians think they can do anything to anyone. And that’s true for Republicans or Democrats. When Trump was a candidate, I thought he was a family man. But he’s not. If he was, he wouldn’t have been in scandals that would embarrass his kids.
Dave. I’m suspicious of Trump because he changes his mind a lot, and his appointments are disturbing. They have to be scrutinized better because they think they’re above the law. I’m disappointed about some things, but I’m glad about the tax cut and the reduced regulations. The rest remains to be seen, like with his trade deals.
Dane. Trump has generally done what he said he’d do. He wanted to repatriate money back to the U.S. and he has. He’s increased jobs and he’s bringing North Korea to the table. I’m disappointed with Congress, because it hasn’t supported his agenda. But I won’t vote Democrat, since I know they’re pushing a hard-left agenda, which is socialism.
On the Kavanaugh Hearings
Judy. The whole thing is a circus. The problem is, she [Christine Blasey Ford] can’t remember facts—like when it took place or the time. You can sympathize with her, but her testimony isn’t credible.
The Democrats are using her to delay this nomination until the elections. No matter how qualified the candidate is, they’ll do what they can do to delay it. Dianne Feinstein knew about Blasey Ford’s allegation in July and could have talked with him [Kavanaugh] about it in private. But they wanted to demonize him. Also, it doesn’t make sense that she [Ford] is afraid of flying but flies all around the world. And the Democrats’ lawyers coached her, while she was in Delaware. Lots of people who knew Kavanaugh support him.
I’m pro-choice, but there needs to be limits. Roe v. Wade is settled law and I don’t think either [Neil] Gorsuch or Kavanaugh will overturn it.
Cindy. The hearings are a witch hunt. We have to watch the dirty laundry being aired in public and they all bash the Republicans. Why did the woman who said Kavanaugh molested her wait so long to say it? And why did Dianne Feinstein wait until now to bring the letter up? Too much is inconsistent. Kavanaugh was already vetted and this was traumatic. A couple years ago, a girl at Duke University ruined a kid’s career by claiming some things that she made up. When I taught middle school, I had a boss who put his hand on my skirt. Am I now going to say that he touched my skirt?
I’m pro-choice, and I’m fine with Kavanaugh because I don’t think he’ll remove Roe v. Wade. But if what she [Ford] claims is true, I wouldn’t support him being approved.
Ron. The hearings are a total sham. Kavanaugh has the most character of anybody. He’s worked hard all his life, was a judge, and has an impeccable record. We should have a poll to see who was not drinking beer to excess. Who gives a crap what he did at 17? I don’t care, since it has no bearing on whether he’s qualified to sit on the Supreme Court. She [Blasey Ford] looked pretty flaky. Even if she’s telling the truth, I still want him approved. What I did 35 years ago has no bearing on what I am now. We were kids and those were different times. Now you have to be politically correct.
Dave. I’m a conservative and I think the hearings are a circus. I don’t know who to believe. But everyone lost a sense of decency. Kavanaugh has to be scrutinized, and they probably should not hold back the documents. But it’s a shame we spend so much time on this, when there are so many problems to fix. Still, we can’t take the Supreme Court appointment lightly.
All this should have been handled earlier and more privately. I’m pleased the FBI is doing more investigating. If anything good comes out of this, people will learn they should tell about what happens to them sooner.
Ken. I like Kavanaugh, since he makes decisions based on the law. Also, he’s pro-life and so am I. I’m sick of how the information comes out at the eleventh hour. If you have information on an applicant, it would have helped to put it on the table two months ago, to give Senate investigators time to look at it. It’s not the FBI’s job, which does background checks, but not of criminal investigations. This is a character issue, not a criminal one. They should have checked this two months ago. All they want to do is postpone it.
Dane. I’m pleased with Trump’s choices of Gorsuch and Kavanaugh. I’m not pro-choice. People should use birth control to not get pregnant, instead of killing a baby as a method of birth control. Kavanaugh was right to rule against the 17-year-old woman in an ICE detention center who wanted an abortion. She should have been deported. Congress passed a law saying no federal dollars should be spent for abortions. It’s not our responsibility to pay for them.
Judy. I support Trump trying to get a handle on illegal immigration and crime. People used to be carefully vetted at Ellis Island, but we don’t do that now.* I’d like to see legal immigration, with people getting permits that allow them to come. ICE is trying to keep illegals out, but it’s getting a lot of blowback from the Democrats. We don’t need to invite more of them in, since this doesn’t solve our crime problem, like what happened to Mollie Tibbetts, in Iowa, who was murdered this past summer. I know her father said she wouldn’t have wanted her murder to be used politically, but she’d be alive if it wasn’t for the man who was here illegally and stalked her. I’m very opposed to sanctuary cities. And separating kids from parents was started under Bush and Obama. But because of the outcry, Trump is trying to keep them together.
Cindy. People here illegally take jobs from those who are legal and from local people. A book, “Tortilla Curtain,” shows how this happens. They also take advantage of what’s offered, like families of migrant workers, who live in hotels for 30 days. Instead, the governments from where they come should be doing more to help their own people. They shouldn’t be our responsibility. If they bring their children, they know they’re going to be separated. It’s sad. But we need a different policy.
Ron. For years we turned a blind eye to illegal immigration, and it cost the taxpayers a lot.* I’ve lived in Mozambique, South Africa and Mexico, where it’s less than wonderful. But we can’t take everyone into the U.S. and build them a house.* It’s time to honor the law, and the Trump administration is doing a good job. All the bleeding-heart people talk about separating children from parents. We try to make them sound like saints. But lots of parents send their kids to the border so the kids can bring in their parents later. When you start enforcing the laws, there are bound to be unpleasantries.
If you go to Mexico’s side of the border, you see slums and shacks because the government could care less. I know we try to make it look like these poor people are salt of the earth, but they’re trying to do anything they can to get into the U.S., because we live better than anyone in the world.* They come up through Mexico, which is basically a dictatorship* with drug cartels running things. If you come here from South Africa, you have to fill out 40 forms. But you can enter from Mexico in a heartbeat.
Dave. I’m a law-abiding person whose grandmother came through Ellis Island. The politicians have to come up with a plan to legalize the illegals and we have to close the border, which isn’t easy. Neither party has come up with a plan, although they ought to be able to fix it. As for the zero-tolerance policy, it shouldn’t be one-size-fits-all. There should always be exceptions.
Ken. There’s more human trafficking than even two years ago, since it’s a moneymaker and they come with phony IDs. ICE is vetting people better to see if they have criminal records, but the border still isn’t secure. The people who’ve been here for years, worked, raised children and paid taxes are the ones who should be considered for citizenship.
Some kids are separated from their parents because of the crimes they commit. Also, since it’s so dangerous, I don’t know why people would want to endanger their children. You’d think they’d want to get established before they bring them in.
Dane: We need to defend our borders. Otherwise, you encourage people to cross illegally. As for separating children from parents, if an American parent took a child to another country and got arrested for doing something illegal, they’d also be separated from their children.
On the Economy, Taxes, Trade
Judy. I hoped the economy would improve, and it has. I think Trump is responsible for that.
Cindy. The economy doesn’t affect us, because we planned our work, saved, and are frugal.
Ron. The tax law doesn’t affect me because I’m retired and not in the system anymore. As long as they don’t get my Social Security, I’m happy. There’s been lots of rhetoric that they’ll mess with that, but they haven’t. And I don’t think they’ll lower Medicare benefits, although they could.
Dave. I’m a fiscal conservative who ran a community savings bank and I’m very concerned about the economy. Time will tell if the growth we get out of the new tax law will pay for it and I’m not convinced it will pan out the way the politicians said.
Ken. The tax cut will put more money in people’s pockets and more people are working than ever. So Trump’s policies have done a good job.
After being abused by countries with unfair trade deals, I’m glad Trump is trying to make things fairer, by putting export taxes on China and Canada. A lot of farmers will support him.
Dane. The tax law has benefited larger companies, which have given bonuses and increased wages—even for low-paying jobs. For smaller companies like mine, it won’t have much effect.
On Obamacare and ‘Medicare for All’
Judy. I don’t have a problem getting health care since I have Medicare and good back-up insurance. But Obamacare wasn’t a good idea and didn’t help people. Much of it benefited insurance companies. I don’t object to expanding Medicaid to vulnerable people, who should have a basic level of care. But there are more options to choose. For example, some are trying to form co-ops that could cross state lines to get the most efficient policy. The Republican Congress could have changed the system and didn’t. Medicare for all would be very expensive and I don’t think universal health care is right. We know that lots of Canadians, who have this kind of system, come here for innovative procedures.
Cindy. If Obamacare was ended, it would be awful to cut off 14 million people. But there have to be checks and balances. About Medicare for all, I go back to my thoughts about people on the dole who think they’re going to be covered no matter what. I worked very hard all my life, and I don’t want to live where there’s a socialist government. But if doctors were their own bosses under Medicare for all, not run by the government, it would be all right. Although some of the things Medicare pays for are not right, it’s been wonderful for my mother and us. We had to get her a hospital bed which would have cost $5,000 if we paid on our own.
Ron. I’m on Medicare and in the VA system and my wife gets Blue Cross/Blue Shield with her job, so neither of us are affected by Obamacare. But we need to get rid of the fraud and close the loopholes. They only passed a law but didn’t pay attention to the system.
Dave. Obamacare has lots of holes but at some point, we have to work toward health care for all. It’s a travesty that we don’t have it. Biggest cause of death in this country is poverty. This has to change.
Ken. The neediest should be covered, but with Trump’s economy and the lowest unemployment rate ever,* there’s more work and people will have the income they need to get health care.
Dane: We need to get rid of Obamacare. The Congressional Budget Office said 13 million people would lose their medical coverage, but it doesn’t have accurate numbers and is often wrong. I’m against Medicare for all. Why should I be penalized for other people’s lifestyles? If we go to universal health care, low-risk individuals will end up paying for those who don’t have a good lifestyle. It would also add another bureaucratic layer to the system, which will increase the cost of health care.
On the Deficit
Dave. We expect to add another trillion dollars to the deficit, and this is in the good times, when we should have surpluses. So what will we have in the next downturn? We have record revenue coming in, but we also have above-record expenses. The unemployment rate is down, and the economy is adding 200,000 jobs a month. So it might balance out. Sales taxes will be higher, but we need to wait to see if federal revenues are up. I don’t think they’ll be as much as was thought.
Ken. If the economy continues to grow and more people are employed, more will pay taxes. Decent jobs are already happening and more people are paying sales taxes. But a lot of people don’t save, and I say shame on them. If you’re making money, you should be saving.
Dane. I doubt the deficit will increase by $1.5 trillion but Congress hasn’t done its job. We need to bite the bullet and cut the bureaucracy and spending, like on education programs that don’t benefit our schools.
On Climate Change and the Environment
Judy. Climate change doesn’t have anything to do with the severe weather we’ve had. We’ve always had hurricanes. I’m not convinced there’s much difference now or that man can control the climate.
It was good to leave the Paris accord because it didn’t help us. We’re doing a good job on our own, compared with other countries, working to keep our water and air clean. For example, pollution in China is much worse than here.
Cindy. I’m fine with getting out of the Paris agreement because there’s always a better way. And even if we make a little difference in our lifetime, it won’t affect climate change. It has changed before and will happen again. We need to do what we can, but not be extreme. Renewable energy should be the goal, but I’m a realist and it’s not going to happen.
Because Trump got out of the [Paris] accord, more countries are paying their dues. He’s a bully, but what he’s done to get the countries to pay their way is right.
Dave. I don’t know if he should have pulled out of the Paris accord. We could do a lot in this country, promoting renewable energy and being efficient. But we shouldn’t do away with all fossil fuel.
Ken. I don’t believe massive weather events are caused by climate change. They’ve been going on for eons. I’m not disappointed that Trump pulled out of the Paris accord. And we shouldn’t lock the door on the coal industry. Instead, we should use all resources, and if you want to reduce something, replace it with something else. Oregon has lots of wind, but I can’t say how practical it’s been, with the cost of wind farms and the amount of energy generated and sold.
We have a coal plant in Oregon and people kept complaining that when coal was transported to the plant in railroad cars, coal dropped out, which caused fires. But in 40 years, we only had one coal car fire. What are they talking about? No coal is being dropped from the cars.
Dane. The severe weather we’ve had is not linked to climate change. I approve of getting out of the Paris accord because it hurt the U.S., economically, more than any other country. It allowed countries like China to get away with murder.
On Weakened Regulations
Judy. The coal industry was hurt by previous administrations. There’s a value to coal and making it clean, and I understand you can do that. Coal jobs have come back in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and coal is not that harmful to the environment.*
Cindy. Could we protect the environment so things don’t become extinct? In the end, nothing will change this. If the new regulations put more money on the table for people and jobs, I’m for that. But if you have something like Love Canal in Buffalo, where the company knew what it was doing, it should have been fined and put out of business.
Dave. I’m for streamlining the processes for businesses and for fewer regulations. But I don’t want to dump coal ash into streams. Fracking should be allowed, but with safeguards on it. In the same way, we shouldn’t hold up a pipeline, but instead make sure it doesn’t go through waterways. On balance, the less regulations the better.
Dane. We won’t see any major detrimental effects because environmental regulations were weakened.
On Nuclear Weapons
Judy. I’m for the efforts the Trump administration is making with North Korea, to eliminate that country’s nuclear weapons.
Cindy. Nuclear weapons are scary.
Dave. We have to negotiate through strength, but the last thing you want to do is start a nuclear war. Even if all the countries said they wanted to eliminate them, I’m skeptical, since some would want to keep them. You can’t trust governments.
Dane. The U.S. needs to maintain its position of strength to maintain peace worldwide. I’d prefer nuclear weapons not ever be used, but the reality is that somewhere down the line a rogue country will use them, most likely in the Middle East. Pakistan has them and Iran could get access to them.
On the Iran Agreement, North Korea
Judy. I’m absolutely for Trump getting out of the Iran agreement. What the Obama administration did was terrible. We gave money to Iran and the mullahs.* We didn’t have enough controls and propped up a terrible regime. I wish European countries would get out of it, too. Iran is a dangerous country. They keep saying “Death to America,” even after the deal.
Cindy. I’m glad Trump got out of it. It was unnecessary to give Iran the money it did. What he did with North Korea, meeting with Kim, is commendable. Since then, there hasn’t been nuclear testing. And he helped broker conversations between North and South Korea,* which is good.
Dave. I don’t know all the facts, and under the agreement, in 10 years, would Iran have been able to go back to what they were doing? I read that Iran broke every promise, so who knows if it can be trusted.
Ken. It was fine that Trump pulled out of the Iran agreement. Under it, they got so much money from the U.S. The best thing that could happen is if the people there overthrew that sadistic regime. If they do, I hope the U.S. would side with the people.
Dane. We should never have signed the [Paris] accord, which was one-sided. It gave billions to a regime to put into terrorism, and only helped it support its military goals, which is to control the Middle East. Iran has been working with North Korea on its research. I don’t believe the U.N. inspection groups and others actually know what’s in Iran, since they didn’t allow the U.N. people to come in.* Instead, they were self-examining to see if they were doing research. The whole travesty that Obama put in place with Iran was ridiculous.*
On Assault Rifles
Judy. I’m against assault weapons and it would be fine if they were banned, if it would prevent the shootings. But we have a right to bear arms. The killings in schools and elsewhere are more of a mental health problem. In Florida, the killer was reported to authorities, including the FBI, and no one did anything about it. I understand that teachers say they don’t want to be armed. It’s a law enforcement issue—to have a safety officer in the schools. But I’d like to see more on prevention, too.
Cindy. I have a friend who doesn’t want to teach in a school where someone is carrying a gun. But I don’t have a problem with guns if they’re used appropriately. They serve a purpose, whether you’re in law enforcement or not. There should be regulations about who can purchase them. Assault weapons should be for the military—not for people who go hunting.
Dave. People shouldn’t have weapons that can kill so many at once. The average person doesn’t need an assault rifle. But I’m in favor of having guns. As for killings in the schools, I don’t think arming teachers will solve the problem.
Ken. I like Trump’s support for Second Amendment issues. Every person has a God-given right to protect himself and his family. A lot of police officers want to keep the Second Amendment. Mayors spout off about how bad the Second Amendment is, but they have armed security guards with them. I’d like to see them go to meetings without their bodyguards.
I have no problem with assault rifles, and the Constitution doesn’t have a problem with them either. We’ve had semi-automatic rifles for a long time. Every time you squeeze the trigger only one bullet comes out, not any faster than with any other weapon.* The people who use them are good and lawful.
I support arming teachers. If they are trained and want to protect themselves and their students, they should have the right to do it. School shootings happen quickly, and even schools that have police officers don’t have one in every building. And what happens is always before the police get there. The teachers I know who could use a gun I’d trust with my daughter’s life. With no intervention, people will be killed.
Dane. The Constitution guarantees the right to firearms. The reality is, I’d rather see more people carry guns. There are incidents when guns have actually saved people’s lives, but the press doesn’t report them, since it doesn’t support their agenda.
Immigrants vetted at Ellis Island.
Fact: At the turn of the 20th century, the only limits were on the Chinese, who were restricted from immigrating in 1882. The U.S. needed workers and immigration was encouraged. Only prostitutes, paupers, polygamists, persons with “dangerous and loathsome contagious diseases,” anarchists and radicals, the feebleminded, the insane and illiterate were banned. Immigration services excluded only 1 percent of the 25 million people from Europe who arrived at Ellis Island from 1880 to World War I. Source: The American Immigration Council
*On the U.S. Building Houses for Immigrants
Fact: Private houses are not being built for immigrants. The U.S. Navy plans to build tent cities to house illegal immigrants. ICE now runs 113 detention facilities around the country.
*On Mexico Being a Dictatorship
Fact: Mexico has a multiparty system. Its president is elected for a six-year term, and it has a Senate and Congress. Each of 31 states elects a governor.
*On People Living Better in the U.S. Than Anywhere Else
Fact: The SEDA (Sustainable Economic Development Assessment) score, estimated by the Boston Consulting Group (BCG), in July 2016 measured citizens’ well-being, based on a country’s wealth, economics, investment in health, education and infrastructure, and stability (which includes income and employment). Norway ranked No. 1, closely followed by the other Northern European countries; the U.S. was No. 19. Source: The Economist 7-20-16.
The United Nations March 2018 World Happiness Report weighs life expectancy, social support, freedom and trust. Finland was No. 1, Norway No. 2, Denmark No. 3, Costa Rica No. 13 and the U.S. No. 18.
*On Obama and Bush Starting the Separation of Children from Parents
In June 2018, Kirstjen Nielsen, head of Homeland Security, claimed this to be true, but couldn’t give any numbers. Also, Trump has said separating children from parents “has been going on for 50 years.”
Fact: Denise Gilman, director of the Immigration Clinic at University of Texas Law School, has called this statement “preposterous.” She said a family might have been separated once every six months or a year, but that was due to a possible trafficking situation, or because the person claiming to be the parent was not the parent. Source: NBC News.
About people on Medicaid not working.
Fact: Sixty percent of nondisabled people on Medicaid (15 million people) are working. A 2018 Kaiser Family Foundation report found nearly eight in 10 Medicaid recipients live in families with at least one worker. Forty-two percent work full time, 18 percent work part-time, 40 percent don’t work, 65 percent of men and 55 percent of women work. Medicaid recipients of all races work: 59 percent of non-Hispanic whites, 57 percent of non-Hispanic blacks, 63 percent of Hispanics, 62 percent of Asians, and 45 percent of Native Americans.
*On Taxpayers Paying for Undocumented Immigrants
Fact: While Trump claimed undocumented immigrants received $4.2 billion in tax credits, they actually paid state and local taxes estimated at $11.6 billion in 2016—and at least 50 percent of them filed tax returns. Of the $11.6 billion, $1.1 billion was from personal income taxes. Source: Forbes, October 2016, by Niall McCarthy
*On the Current Unemployment Rate
Fact: It’s now 3.9 percent, but this was also the rate in 2000. It was 1.2 percent in 1944, 1.9 percent in 1943, 2.7 percent in 1952, and 3.4 percent in 1968.
*On the Kavanaugh Hearings; the FBI’s Role in the Investigations
Fact: In 1991, during the Clarence Thomas hearings, the FBI investigated Anita Hill for three days. Based on its report, the White House said her allegations were “unfounded.” Hill had testified that Thomas had sexually harassed her when he was her boss at the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission).
*On Weakened Environmental Regulations
About coal jobs coming back to Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
Fact: In 2018, there was a net gain of 1,300 coal jobs.
*On Coal Being Nonpolluting
Fact: Besides carbon dioxide, coal also produces sulfur dioxide (acid rain); nitrogen oxide (smog, burned lung tissue, asthma); particulates, soot or fly ash (bronchitis); and mercury (brain damage and heart problems). Until now, no technology exists to clean coal, despite research around the world. Union of Concerned Scientists: Coal and Air Pollution.
*On Leaving the Iran Agreement and Billions Given to Iran
Fact: Although Trump said the deal gave Iran $150 billion and $1.8 billion in cash, the U.S. didn’t “give it.” After 1979, U.S. sanctions against Iran froze its assets, most of which were in overseas banks. The 2016 agreement freed up these funds, which are not $150 billion but rather $25 billion-$50 billion. As for the $1.8 billion (actually $1.7 billion), Iran had paid this amount to the U.S. before 1979 for arms it bought but that were never delivered. Source: A 2018 Congressional Research Service report.
About Trump brokering conversations between North and South Korea.
Fact: The U.S. has not played a role, and Vice President Pence sat stonily at the Olympics, when the Koreans marched under one flag.
*On Nuclear Weapons
About Iran cheating the inspectors.
Fact: IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency, launched under President Eisenhower in 1957) inspectors were in Iran for a collective total of 3,000 days (in 2018) and verified that Iran was implementing its nuclear commitments.
*On Errors the U.S. Made Concerning the Iran Agreement
Fact: The agreement was arranged by the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council—China, France, Russia, the U.K. and the U.S.—plus Germany and the EU.
*On Assault Rifles
About these being no faster than other weapons.
Fact: When bump stocks are fitted onto semi-automatic rifles, they shoot almost as fast as fully automatic machine guns. At the Las Vegas concert shooting, Stephen Paddock killed 58 people and injured 851 in 10 minutes. He had modified his rifle with a bump stock.