June 19, 2013
Saving the Post Office
Posted on Aug 14, 2012
By Ellen Brown, Web of Debt
This piece originally appeared at webofdebt.com.
On July 27, 2012, the National Association of Letter Carriers adopted a resolution at their National Convention in Minneapolis to investigate establishing a postal banking system. The resolution noted that expanding postal services and developing new sources of revenue are important to the effort to save the public Post Office and preserve living-wage jobs; that many countries have a successful history of postal banking, including the U.S. itself; and that postal banks could serve the 9 million people who don’t have bank accounts and the 21 million who use usurious check cashers.
The USPS has been self-funded throughout its history, but it has been recently driven to insolvency because in 2006, Congress required it to prefund postal retiree health benefits for 75 years into the future, an onerous burden no other public or private company is required to carry. The USPS has evidently been targeted by a plutocratic Congress bent on destroying the most powerful unions and privatizing all public services, including education. Britain’s 150-year-old postal service is also on the privatization chopping block, and its postal workers have also vowed to fight. Adding banking services is an internationally proven way to maintain post office profitability.
Many countries operate postal savings systems, providing people without access to banks a safe, convenient way to save. Great Britain first offered this arrangement in 1861. It was wildly popular, attracting over 600,000 accounts and £8.2 million in deposits in its first five years. By 1927, there were twelve million accounts—one in four Britons—with £283 million on deposit.
Other postal banks followed. They were popular because they serviced a huge untapped market—the unbanked, underbanked, and rural populations. Though that may sound like a losing proposition, numerous precedents show it can be quite profitable. According to a Discussion Paper of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, banking revenues are actually crucial in many countries to maintaining the profitability of their postal network. Public postal banks can be profitable because their market is large and their costs are low: the infrastructure is already built and available, advertising costs are minimal, and government-owned banks do not award their management extravagant bonuses or commissions that drain profits away. Profits return to the government and the people.
New Zealand’s postal bank had a return on equity of 11.7% in the second half of 2011, with net profits almost trebling. It is the only New Zealand bank able to compete with the big four Australian banks that dominate the New Zealand financial sector.
In fact, it was set up for that purpose. By 2001, Australian mega-banks controlled some 80% of New Zealand’s retail banking. Profits went abroad and were maximized by closing less profitable branches, especially in rural areas. The New Zealand government launched a state-owned bank that would keep costs low while still providing services throughout New Zealand, by opening branches in post offices.
In an early version of the “move your money” campaign, 500,000 customers transferred their deposits to Kiwibank in its first five years—this in a country of only 4 million people. Kiwibank consistently earns the nation’s highest customer satisfaction ratings, forcing the Australia-owned banks to improve their service to compete.
China’s Postal Savings Bureau:
China’s Postal Savings Bureau was re-established in 1986 after a 34-year lapse. Savings deposits flooded in, growing at over 50% annually in the first half of the 1990s. By 1998, postal savings accounted for 47% of China Post’s operating revenues. The Postal Savings Bureau has served as a vital link in mobilizing income and profits from the private sector, providing credit for local development. In 2007, the Postal Savings Bank of China was set up as a state-owned limited company that provides postal banking services.
Japan Post Bank:
By 2007, Japan Post was the largest holder of personal savings in the world, boasting assets for its savings bank and insurance arms of more than ¥380 trillion ($3.2 trillion). It was also the largest employer in Japan. As in China, Japan Post recaptures and mobilizes income from the private sector, funding the government at low interest rates and protecting the nation’s debt from speculative raids.
Switzerland’s Swiss Post:
Postal financial services are by far the most profitable activity of Swiss Post, which suffers heavy losses from its parcel delivery and only marginal profits from letter delivery operations.
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