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Justice for Eric Garner: Street Protests and Prosecutions Will Not End Police Brutality
Posted on Aug 7, 2014
“I can’t breathe” was one of the last things 44-year-old Eric Garner said after being arrested by New York Police Department officers and placed in what appears, in a bystander’s video, to be a chokehold. The asthmatic African-American man was being detained on suspicion of illegally selling cigarettes on the sidewalk and died shortly after being taken into custody. With the city medical examiner ruling his death a homicide, it remains to be seen if the cop-friendly Staten Island district attorney will prosecute the law enforcement officers.
In another case that resulted not in death but trauma and severe humiliation, a 48-year-old woman in Brooklyn named Denise Stewart, also African-American, was dragged by male officers out of her apartment while she was clothed in only a towel and underwear. They were looking for the source of a domestic violence call that had been made from somewhere in the building and heard shouts coming from Stewart’s unit, but she told officers they had the wrong apartment. Stewart, who, like Garner is asthmatic, was left topless and screaming in desperation for her oxygen. Although she survived the encounter, she has now been charged with assaulting a police officer, and her son and two daughters have also been slapped with charges.
Both police encounters are attracting public outrage but perhaps only because they were videotaped by witnesses. In Garner’s case, Ramsey Orta, whose video of the arrest provides the clearest indication of what happened, has himself been arrested on unrelated weapon possession charges. Orta’s arrest has the potential to have a chilling effect on witnesses documenting such police encounters.
Although the federal government carefully tracks the number of law enforcement officers who are killed and assaulted annually, there is no nationwide record of how many people die or are injured at the hands of police officers, despite a requirement issued by Congress in 1994 for the U.S. attorney general to do just that. That fact itself is an indication of the value that our government places on the lives of police officers over ordinary people. It may also be an indication that if accounts were kept, the numbers might be too staggering to ignore.
In the absence of government statistics, individuals are attempting to track deaths. One former FBI agent named James Fisher counted a total of 1,146 people shot by police nationwide from Jan. 1, 2011, to Jan. 1, 2012, with 607 of them dying. A journalist named D. Brian Burghart, the publisher and editor of the Reno News & Review, has started his own online searchable database called Fatal Encounters to “be able to figure out how many people are killed by law enforcement, why they were killed, and whether training and policies can be modified to decrease the number of officer-involved deaths.” Burghart’s site offers state-by-state searches, and a comparative database of incidents. Wikipedia also maintains a list of officer involved killings organized by date and location but it is nearly impossible to verify the completeness of these lists without a comprehensive and detailed study.
Yet those of us who constantly monitor the news understand the ubiquity of police abuse. We see and feel it all around us, sometimes in our own neighborhoods, and all too often through personal experience. Depending primarily upon our race, but also on income, gender and age, it is often fear of police officers, rather than trust in their uniform, that colors our comfort levels with them.
Racial profiling and excessive police force are a potentially fatal mix. When I see a police car in my rearview mirror, my instant and irrational reaction is one of panic, while my white friends are probably more likely to hold the attitude of “if you haven’t done anything wrong, there’s nothing to fear.” I find myself constantly making the mental calculation of whether a police officer will judge me by my skin color or by the fact that I’m driving a Prius—an unmistakable hallmark of the middle class that could mitigate any officer bias.
Black and brown Americans especially know how some police officers tend to view them through the lens of race above all. Los Angeles County Superior Court Judge David S. Cunningham found that even his exalted position, and his former leadership of the L.A. Police Commission, did not protect him from police abuse on the UCLA campus. The university agreed last month to pay $500,000 to settle a suit over an arrest of Cunningham in November that he says was made solely because of his race (he is African-American). Arizona State University’s Ersula Ore similarly seemed to find that being a professor on the campus she was walking through apparently did not trump the fact that she is black when she was stopped for jaywalking in May and asked for ID by police, in an incident that resulted in a charge of resisting arrest and a sentence of nine months’ supervised probation.
A recent report by the ACLU called War Comes Home: The Excessive Militarization of American Policing analyzed police data from 20 agencies around the country in 2011, and found that 62 percent of SWAT team deployments were for drug searches and 79 percent were to serve search warrants. But in only 35 percent of the heavily armed deployments was a weapon even present in the searched home, and 54 percent of the people impacted were people of color.
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